Background: Sucrose, the major product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported as a soluble carbohydrate via the phloem, is a critical determinant for harvest yield in wheat crops. Sucrose-phosphatase (SPP) catalyzes the final step in the sucrose biosynthesis pathway, implying its essential role in the plant. Result: In this study, wheat SPP homologs genes were isolated from chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, designated as TaSPP-5A, TaSPP-5B, and TaSPP-5D, respectively. Sequence alignment showed one 1-bp Insertion-deletion (InDel) and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at TaSPP-5A coding region, forming two haplotypes, TaSPP-5Aa and TaSPP-5Ab, respectively. A derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (dCAPS) marker, TaSPP-5A-dCAPS, was developed to discriminate allelic variation based on the polymorphism at position 1242 (C-T). A total of 158 varieties were used to perform a TaSPP-5A marker-trait association analysis, where two haplotypes were significantly associated with sucrose content in two environments and with thousand-grain weight (TGW) and grain length (GL) in three environments. Quantitative real-time PCR further revealed that TaSPP-5Aa showed relatively higher expression than TaSPP-5Ab in wheat seedling leaves, generally associating with increased sucrose content and TGW. The expression of TaSPP-5A and sucrose content in TaSPP-5Aa haplotypes were also higher than those in TaSPP-5Ab haplotypes under both 20% PEG-6000 and 100μM ABA treatment. Sequence alignment showed that the two TaSPP-5A haplotypes comprised 11 SNPs from -395 to -1962 bp at TaSPP-5A promoter locus, participating in the formation of several conserved sequences, may account for the high expression of TaSPP-5A in TaSPP-5Aa haplotypes. In addition, the distribution analysis of TaSPP-5A haplotypes revealed that TaSPP-5Aa was preferred in the natural wheat population, being strongly positively selected in breeding programs. Conclusion: According to the SNPs detected in the TaSPP-5A sequence, two haplotypes, TaSPP-5Aa and TaSPP5Ab, were identified among wheat accessions, which potential value for sucrose content selection was validated by association analysis. Our results indicate that the favorable allelic variation TaSPP-5Aa should be valuable in enhancing grain yield by improving the sucrose content. Furthermore, a functional marker, TaSPP-5A-dCAPS, can be used for marker-assisted selection to improve grain weight in wheat and provides insights into the biological function of TaSPP-5A gene.