Angelica sinensis, a perennial herb that produces ferulic acid and phthalides for the treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, prefers growing at an altitude of 1800-3000 m. Geographical models have predicted that high altitude, cool temperature and sunshade play determining roles in geo-authentic formation. Although the roles of altitude and light in yield and quality have been investigated, the role of temperature in regulating growth, metabolites biosynthesis and gene expression is still unclear. In this study, growth characteristics, metabolites contents and related genes expression were investigated by exposing A. sinensis to cooler (15 °C) and normal temperatures (22 °C). The results showed that plant biomass, the contents of ferulic acid and flavonoids and the expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of ferulic acid (PAL1, 4CLL4, 4CLL9, C3H, HCT, CCOAMT and CCR) and flavonoids (CHS and CHI) were enhanced at 15 °C compared to 22 °C. The contents of ligustilide and volatile oils exhibited slight increases, while polysaccharide contents decreased in response to cooler temperature. Based on gene expression levels, ferulic acid biosynthesis probably depends on the CCOAMT pathway and not the COMT pathway. It can be concluded that cool temperature enhances plant growth, ferulic acid and flavonoid accumulation but inhibits polysaccharide biosynthesis in A. sinensis. These findings authenticate that cool temperature plays a determining role in the formation of geo-authentic and also provide a strong foundation for regulating metabolites production of A. sinensis.